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Probing the depths of knowledge

These essays by P. A. Stonemann, CSS Dixieland, cover a wide range of historical, philosophical, scientifical and technical subjects. Each page deals with a particular topic, divided into sections and explained by itself. Every page shows at its top hyper links to every other page. The Start page also has short descriptions of the other pages. CSS Dixieland expresses gratitude to the readers that make this work meaningful.

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Cinematography page

History of a technique that makes possible the
materialisation of the strangest dreams on a screen
The capture of living action on the edge of for ever

Walkyrie who takes our dead heroes to Walhalla in Asgard
Walkyrie who takes our dead heroes to Walhalla in Asgard.
Wagner Frost Illustration

Sections in this page

  History of Cinematography

Technical note: In languages other than English or Latin, but which use mainly Latin characters, some characters are taken from other alphabets, or some Latin characters are modified with diacritic marks for representing different phonemic sounds or other orthographic conventions of those languages. Those characters, when used in this document, have been encoded as entities of Hyper Text Mark-up Language or sometimes in Unicode UTF-8. Therefore computers using other character encodings may render some characters inaccurately, but hopefully, it will still be possible to read non-English words without too much difficulty.


History of Cinematography

Cinematography is the technique of recording and showing images that give to the observer an impression of movement. The name comes from Greek 'kinos' = 'movement' and 'graphos' = 'record' (or more specifically 'visual record'), therefore 'movement recorded visually' as a possible translation. The images may be photographic or they may be hand drawings. In the latter case they receive the name of cartoons, from the Italian word 'cartone' = 'cardboard', because the first cartoons were drawn on cardboard or on rigid paper. In English they are also known as 'animated caricature', German 'Gezeichneter Trickfilm', Scandinavian 'Tegneserier', Italian 'disegno animato', Portuguese 'desenho animado', Spanish 'dibujo animado'. Either being a photograph or being a hand drawing, there is in reality no movement at all, but only a subjective impression caused by the fast succession of frames that form a sequence of similar images, each image being very slightly different from its predecessor. The magic of Cinematography is of an everlasting attraction to those who see the invention for the first time.

Chronology of Cinematography

IV century Before Christ: Plato describes in his Myth of the Cavern (seventh book of the 'Republic') a dark chamber with animated shadows projected onto one of its walls.

IV century Before Christ: Aristotle observes that Sun light penetrating through small interstices of leaves in a tree, always projects a circular illumination onto the ground, independently of the form of the interstices. This is the principle of the stenopo or pin-hole. He also says that air can darken certain substances. This was proven wrong in the XVII century, the substances are darkened by light and not by air.

II century After Christ: Claudius Ptolomeus mentions the phenomenon of persistence of images (Phi Effect).

XI century: Al Hazan experiments on the persistence of images.

XV century: Leonardo da Vinci writes about the camera obscura (dark chamber).

XVII century: Giovanni della Porta builds portable dark chambers as an aid to draughtsmen.

XVII century: Anastasius Kircher is one of the first developers of the magic lantern, an optical device for projecting images onto a wall or screen. The fast sucession of two images forming a sequence gives a rudimentary impression of movement.

1660 Walgenstein presents in Rome a magic lantern that works with artificial light instead of Sun light.

XVIII century: It is discovered that the persistence of images varies with the intensity of light. It goes from a minimum of a fortieth of a second with weak light to one second or more with strong light, but for magic lantern purposes it can be evaluated as being between a tenth and a fourth of a second.

1736 Oldest known 'animated cartoon', a diapositive pair for magic lantern produced in the Low Countries. One frame shows a curious arlechino opening a big box, in the other frame an enormous head eats the arlechino.

1757 I. B. Beccari discovers the darkening effect of light on silver chloride. Because the darkening is proportional mainly to the intensity of light and to the time of exposure, an image can be formed. Silhouettes of some objects are obtained by placing the object on the sensitive plate and exposing it to Sun light. Other researchers study this phenomenon and verify that the darkening is provoked by light, not by air as it had been previously thought.

1770 A theatre of 'Chinese' animated shadows is known to have existed in Alger, on the Mediterranean coast of Africa.

1797 Robertson presents in Paris a show of animated shadows called 'Phantasmagories' (a similar name was used in 1908 by Emile Cohl, for one of the first cartoons).

1799 Chaussier discovers that sodium tiosulphate (hyposulphite) can remove the silver chloride that had not been reduced by the developer, therefore fixing the photographic image.

1802 Thomas Wedgwood obtains primitive photographic images, but because he did not know that Chaussier had discovered the photographic fixer three years earlier, all the images become totally black in a few days (they had to be observed inside a light-proof box, its interior illuminated by a candle).

1822 Joseph Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) uses a fine asphalt called Jewish bitumen, developed with lavanda oil, to obtain his first 'heliographs' with an exposure time of fourteen hours under full Sun light. The oldest extant image is of 1823 and it needed an exposure of eight hours. It shows a view of roofs seen from the window of Niepce's house in Paris.

1832 Phenachistiscope of Joseph Plateau (animated drawings by rotating a flat disc).

1834 Zootrope of Hoerner (animated drawings by rotating a cylinder).

1837 Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre (a former associate of Niepce) by fortunate serendipity discovers a new process that reduces exposure time to less than fifteen minutes. He later reduced this time to less than four minutes, doing his invention public in 1839 (and earning a government pension for that). Other researchers like Hypolite Bayard and Hercules Florence also have their share in the History of Photography.

1841 Chevalier optical objectives of two lenses. Shortly later also the Voigtlander objectives of four lenses. Being both of them of greater aperture than their predecessors, exposure time became reduced to about five seconds.

1841 William Henry Fox Talbot invents the negative-positive process. He used sensitised paper, of lower quality than the Daguerreotype, but allowing many copies. His 'Pencil of Nature' is the first book in History illustrated with photographs.

1847 Niepce de Saint Victor discovers the albumen process, reducing exposure time to three seconds.

1851 Frederick Scott Archer discovers the collodion process and gives it to the world for free (he does not patent it).

1852 Jules Dubosq places a sequence of photographs in the zootrope, getting for the first time photographic animation (as opposed to animated drawings).

1853 Franz von Uchatius tries to project animated drawings onto screen.

1870 Heyl projects animated photographs onto screen.

1871 R. L. Maddox discovers the gelatine sensitised with silver bromide, reducing exposure time to a hundredth of a second.

1877 Praxinoscope of Charles Emile Reynaud (1844-1918), a perfected zootrope using mirrors. In 1880 it was experimentally used for projections to the public, being patented in 1887 and formally presented in 1888 as 'Pantomimes Lumineuses du Theatre Optique'.

1878: 'La Danse sur la Corde' by Charles Emile Reynaud. Very short animation for Praxinoscope, hand drawn without using Photography.

1878 Stanford and Eadweard James Muybridge photograph the sequence of a horse galloping on the turf, by means of many cameras placed along the path, with each shutter being released by a thin thread cut by the fast passing runner. They prove that a trotting horse always has one foot on the ground, except when jumping, but a galloping horse can have the four feet in the air even when not jumping.

1878: 'Sallie Gardner' by Eadweard James Muybridge. Very short sequence, photographed with a row of still cameras triggered by threads.

1884 George Eastman Kodak produces stripping film of gelatine bromide on paper. In 1887 the base support would become cellulose nitrate, years later it would be made of cellulose acetate (because the nitrate was highly combustible and therefore dangerous).

1888: 'Roundhay Garden Scene' by Louis Aime Augustin le Prince. Very short reel (18 frames), considered the very earliest cinematographic film.

About 1887 Thomas Edison invents a kind of cinematograph that makes possible the installation of 'nickel-odeons' in public places. A nickel-odeon is a cinematographic machine for only one observer at a time. The price for a session of some minutes was a 'nickel', five cents.

1894: 'Annie Oakley' by Thomas Edison. Very short reel made in the Black Maria (the first cinematographic studio) of a famous woman, rifle sharp-shooter.

1888 Etienne Jules Marey, who had inspired the horse-galloping photographic experiment of Muybridge, invents a photographic gun named 'Chronophotograph', which can take from twelve to eighteen photographs per second in a sequence. He uses film without perforations on a flat rotating disc.

1895: 'Canards se jetant a l'eau dans le Bois de Boulogne' by Etienne Jules Marey and Charles Comte. Very short sequence made by Chronophotograph.

1888 Pantomimes Lumineuses du Theatre Optique, of Charles Emile Reynaud (1844-1918). His films had a central perforation between sequential frames (as in the later 9.5 mm format). They were animated drawings typically composed of about 500 frames:
Pauvre Pierrot
Autour d'une cabine
Clown et ses chiens

And some of about 700 frames:
Un bon bock

The projector was operated by rotating big horizontal cylinders with both hands, while the pianist Gaston Paulin gave music to the show.

1892: 'Pauvre Pierrot' by Charles Emile Reynaud. Short reel animation for Pantomimes Lumineuses du Theatre Optique, hand drawn without using Photography.

1891 Georges Demeny invents the Phonoscope, based on the Chronophotograph of Marey and on other machines. The Phonoscope was patented in 1893, it had a disc similar to that of Joseph Plateau's Phenachistiscope. This idea of the rotating disc, although it limits the total number of images, allows today for the scientific analysis of extremely fast events, with images separated by a microsecond (using flash light, not a mechanical shutter).

1893 Leon Bouly patents a machine called Cinematograph. He is the first person to have used that name.

13th February 1895 Louis Lumiere (1864-1948) patents a variant of the Chronophotograph, that can not only photograph, but also project on screen.

22nd March 1895 First exhibition of Lumiere's machine: Societe Industrielle, Rue Rennes 44, Paris. The only film projected was:
La sortie des ouvriers de l'usine Lumiere a Lyon

22nd March 1895: 'La sortie des ouvriers de l'usine Lumiere a Lyon' by Lumiere Freres. Short reel.

1st June 1895 Second exhibition of Lumiere's machine: Lyon. It repeats the film that had been already projected in Paris and adds new ones:
La sortie des ouvriers de l'usine Lumiere a Lyon
Arrive d'un train a la gare de Lyon
La place de la Bourse a Lyon
Seance de voltige
Les forgerons
Bebe pechant des poissons
L'incendie d'une maison
L'arroseur arrose
Le gouter de bebe

1st June 1895: 'Arrive d'un train a la gare de Lyon' by Lumiere Freres. Short reel.

16th November 1895 Third exhibition of Lumiere's machine: Universite de La Sorbonne. Similar programme as in Lyon.

1st June 1895: 'Le gouter de bebe' by Lumiere Freres. Short reel.

28th December 1895 Fourth exhibition of Lumiere's machine (the first one with paid admission, the other three had been by invitation only): Salon Indien du Grand Cafe, Boulevard des Capucines 14, Paris. The announcement, painted by M. Auzolle, depicts elegant public enjoying "L'arroseur arrose" and reads "Cinematographe Lumiere". The word "Cinematography" (coined by Leon Bouly in 1893) becomes usual in the XX century, over "Chronophotography" or other XIX century expressions for the same idea.

1896 Panoramic Cineorame of Raoul Grimoin-Sanson (1860-1941), using ten cameras in circle for recording, and therefore ten projections working simultaneously (a single projector with ten objective lenses). Three hundred or four hundred members of the public saw themselves in the centre of a room of a hundred metres in diameter, on top of the projector's cabine, surrounded by a huge circular screen. The first panoramic film showed the ascense and descense of a balloon, with the camera located inside the aerostat. The idea of the large screen re-appeared several times in Cinematography, with more or less success.

1896 Graphophonoscope of A. Baron, a failed tentative of synchronising cinematograph and phonograph.

1908: 'Excursion a la Luna' by Segundo de Chomon. Short reel hand-coloured by Pathe Freres, imitating 'Voyage dans la Lune' by George Melies. These films of Melies and Chomon are considered the First Scientific Fiction in Cinematography.

October 1896 First specifically equipped cinematographic studio in the world (apart from the much more simple Black Maria of Thomas Edison), located in Montreuil-sous-Bois, France. Built by the first cinematographic company, the Star Film (Manufacture des films pour cinematographes) of George Melies (1861-1938). Some of the first cinematographic tricks were invented by Melies: substitution or doubling of characters or other elements, chained fading, and fading or superimpression on black. He also tried in 1900 to synchronise cinematograph and phonograph, without success (already tried by A. Baron). Vitagraph, Pathe, Edison, G.A. Smith and other later famous names in Cinematography, all passed by the studio of George Melies. From 1895 to 1914 he produced about 450 short films (each typically of about 300 metres, giving less than 20 minutes of projection, although some of them were longer). Some of the most important films of George Melies are:
1897: Le cabinet de Mephistopheles
1897: L'auberge ensorcelee
1897: Faust et Marguerite
1898: Pygmalion et Galathee
1898: Le reve de l'astronome, la Lune a un metre
1898: Guillaume Tell
1899: Le miroir de Cagliostro
1899: Neptune et Amphitrite
1899: L'affaire Dreyfus (200 metres)
Le chirurgien fin de siecle
Le chateau hante
Le domain du diable
Phrenologie burlesque
L'empire de Neptune
Le palais des mille et une nuits
Anne de Boleyn a la tour de Londres
Jupiter et les Muses
L'armoire spirite des freres Davenport (65 metres)
La fee des fleurs
Le reve de l'horloger
Le miracle des flots
Les transmutations imperceptibles
1900: L'homme orchestre
1900: Reve de Noel (160 metres)
1900: Coppelia
1900: Les quatrecents farces du diable (444 metres)
1900: Jeanne d'Arc (271 metres)
1901: Le petit chaperon rouge
1901: Barbe Blue (210 metres)
1901: L'homme a la tete de caoutchouc
1901: La danseuse microscopique
1902: Le voyage dans la Lune (260 metres, 16 minutes)
1902: L'homme mouche
1902: Le voyage de Gulliver
1902: Robinson Crusoe
1903: Le cake-walk infernal
1903: Le royaume des fees
1903: La lanterne magique
1903: Le puits enchante
1903: L'auberge de bon repos
1903: La damnation de Faust
1904: Le juif errant (60 metres)
1904: Voyage a travers l'impossible
1904: Benvenuto Cellini
1905: Course de Paris a Montecarlo en 2 heures (470 metres)
1905: L'ange de Noel
1905: Le menuet lilliputien
1906: Jack le ramoneur
1906: La fee Carabosse
1906: Le dirigeable fantastique
1906: Les incendiaires
1907: Vingt mille lieues sous les mers (based on Jules Verne)
1907: Le tunnel sous la Manche
1907: Hamlet (based on William Shakespeare)
1908: Le fakir de Singapoore
1908: La civilisation a travers les ages
1909: Si j'etais roi
1909: Les ilusions fantaisistes
1911: Les aventures du baron de Munchhausen
1912: Cendrillon
1912: A la conquete du pole (big figure of an ice giant, built in the studio)

1908: 'Excursion a la Luna' by Segundo de Chomon. Short reel hand-coloured by Pathe Freres, imitating 'Voyage dans la Lune' by George Melies. These films of Melies and Chomon are considered the First Scientific Fiction in Cinematography.

1900 Short cartoon by Gaumont about the Battle of Spion Kopp, South Africa.

November 1900: 'Enchanted Drawing' by Thomas Edison. Short reel partly animated.

1901 A la conquete de l'air, film of Ferdinand Zecca, showing trick of split screen.

1902 Execution of Mary Queen of Scots, film of Edwin S. Porter, collecting parts of reels that William Heiss had produced for Edison in 1894.

1900: 'Sherlock Holmes Baffled' by Arthur Marvin. Short reel for Biograph Mutoscope. First appearance of Sherlock Holmes in Cinematography.

1903 The Great Train Robbery (240 metres), film of Edwin S. Porter, one of the first filmed in open location (in New Jersey, west of the Hudson River).

1907 Rescued from an Eagle's Nest, film of Edwin S. Porter, using some of the first special effects (a child being carried by an eagle).

1908: 'Fantasmagorie' by Emile Cohl, showing the character 'Le Fantoche'. Short reel animation, obtained by photographing drawings made with chalk on blackboard.

1st August 1908 "Le Fantoche" of Emile Cohl (1857-1938) (one of the very first cartoon characters) is presented in the Theatre du le Gymnase, Paris. His first cartoon was:
Fantasmagorie (36 metres, 117 seconds)

His second cartoon was:
Le cauchemar du fantoche (80 metres, 260 seconds)

Other cartoons produced by Emile Cohl:
Retapeurs de cervelle
Joyeux microbes (102 metres, projected in the Folies-Bergere)
1910: Aventures du Baron du Crac (102 metres)
1910: Le reve d'un garson de cafe (100 metres)
1912: Rien est impossible a l'homme (110 metres)
1918: Pieds nickeles (116 metres)

Between 1908 and 1918 Cohl produced almost a hundred short cartoons, over half of them in North America, the rest in France. He worked alone, his imagination and his technique being source of inspiration to many other cartoonists. In 1912 Cohl created the cartoon character Snookums, in collaboration with George McManus.

1908 The Adventures of Dolly, film of David Wark Griffith (1875-1948).

1909 Edgar Allan Poe, film of David Wark Griffith.

1909: 'Gertie the Dinosaur' by Winsor McCay. Short reel animation with every frame hand drawn and photographed, without using rotoscope.

1909 "Gertie the dinosaur", cartoon of Winsor McCay (author of the paper-printed comic series "Little Nemo in Slumberland"). He worked in the branch that Gaumont had opened in Flushing, New York.

About 1910 Koko the Clown, cartoon character of Max Fleischer.

1910 Frankenstein, film of Searle Dawley, based on Mary Shelley.

1911 One Hundred Years After, film of Pathe (showing a futuristic matriarchal society).

1906-1911: 'Humorous Phases of Funny Faces' by James Stuart Blackton. Short reel animation, obtained by photographing drawings made with chalk on blackboard.

1906-1911 James Stuart Blackton (manager of Norma Talmadge) produces "Humorous Phases of Funny Faces" as a Vitagraph cartoon on celluloid (he had begun his work in 1906 in Los Angeles).

1911: 'Little Nemo' by Winsor McCay. Short reel hand-coloured animation, with every frame hand drawn and photographed, without using rotoscope. Based on his paper-printed comic series 'Little Nemo in Slumberland' published by the New York Herald (one of the first comic strips, after the Yellow Kid).

1911 Winsor McCay produces some cartoons of 12 000 frames.

1912 Julius Pinschewer produces the first German cartoons (Excelsior).

1911: Photographic camera used by Winsor McCay. The drawing is aligned carefullly, and photographed for forming each frame in the animated sequence.

1914 Earl Hurd consolidates the use of transparent celluloid for producing cartoons (paper was the material commonly used before).

8th February 1915: Projected in Los Angeles "The Birth of a Nation", film of David Wark Griffith, based on Thomas Dixon's novel "The Clansman". It relates the stupidity and brutality of niggers, the tyranny and abuse of foreign Yankee carpetbaggers, and the collaborationism of traitor scalawags, in the period that followed the War for Confederate Independence, when the Dixie Nation was under the hateful Yankee rule known as "the reconstruction".

1913: 'Bangville Police', by The Keystone Cops. First episode of one of the first cinematographic series, featuring pretty ladies and simplistic humour.

1916 Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea, film of Stuart Paton, based on Jules Verne. It is the first long reel based on Verne (most Melies films had been of short length, a few of medium length).

1917 Himmelskibet, film of Olsen og Madsen.

1918 Wreck of the Lusitanie (25000 frames), cartoon of Winsor McCay.

1920: 'Felix the Cat in the Stone Age', by Otto Messmer and Pat Sullivan. First episode of one of the first animated series and famous characters, who were still successful well into the 1960's.

About 1920 Micky Mouse, cartoon character of Walt Disney (who developed the rotoscope and the finest technique in cartoon making). Other known cartoon characters were Captain Grogg, of Bergdahl, Mutt and Jeff, of Bud Fisher, and Felix the Cat, of Pat Sullivan. Known series: Aesop's Fables, of Paul Terry. Other known characters: Oswald the Rabbit. Other known cartoonists: Iwerks, Kodathaev.

1923 Paris qui dort, film of Rene Clair (a paralysing ray freezes Paris).

1925 The Lost World, film of Fairfax and Hoyt, based on Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

1926 Metropolis, film of Fritz Lang.

1929 Die Frau im Mond, film of Fritz Lang.

1929 Mysterious Island, film of Lucien Hubbard, based on Jules Verne.

1929 The Jazz Singer, first sound film in History, starring Al Johnson.

1931 Frankenstein, film of Ford and Whale, based on Mary Shelley.

1931 Le fin du mond, film of Abel Gance.

1932 The Lost Souls, film of Young and Kenton, based on "The Island of Doctor Moreau" by Herbert George Wells.

1932 Doctor Jekyll and Mister Hyde, film of Hoffenstein and Mamoulian, based on Robert Louis Stevenson.

1933 The Invisible Man, film of Sherriff and Whale, based on Herbert George Wells.

1933 King Kong, film of Merian Cooper.

1936 Flash Gordon, cinema series of Frederick Stephani, based on Alex Raymond. 13 episodes.

1936 The Walking Dead, film of Milne and Curtiz.

1936 The Devil Doll, film of Tod Browning, based on Merritt.

1936 Things to Come, film of William Cameron, based on Herbert George Wells.

1936 Undersea Kingdom, cinema series of Rathmell and Reeves. 12 episodes.

1940 Doctor Cyclops, film of Kilpatrick and Schoedsack.

1941 Man Made Monster, film of West and Waggner.

1941 Tainstvennii Ostrov, film of Kalinin and Chelintsev, based on Jules Verne.

1950 Destination Moon, film of Pichel and Robert Heinlein.

1951 When Worlds Collide, film of Boehm and Mate.

1951 The Thing from Another World, film of Lederer and Hawks.

1953 It Came from Outer Space, film of Essex and Arnold.

1953 The War of the Worlds, film of Lydon and Haskin, inspired on Herbert George Wells and on a wireless programme of Orson Welles.

1954 Them !, film of Sherdemann and Douglas.

1955 This Island Earth, film of Coen and Newman.

1956 Forbidden Planet, film of Hume and McLeod.

1956 Invasion of the Body Snatchers, film of Siegel and Sam Peckinpah.

1957 The Incredible Shrinking Man, film of Matheson and Arnold.

1958 The Fly, film of Langelaan and Newmann.

1965: Vincent Price, polyfacetic actor who participated in 'The Fly' and in many other cinematographic plays. Here he is in a scene of the episode 'The Deadly Dolls', of the television series 'Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea'.

1958 The Terror from Beyond Space, film of Bixby and Cahn.

1959-1964 The Twilight Zone, television series of Rod Serling. 138 episodes of 25 minutes.

1960 The Time Machine, film of Duncan and Pal, based on Herbert George Wells.

1960 Village of the Damned, film of Silliphant and Rilla, based on 'The Midwich Cuckos' by John Wyndham.

1963 The Day of the Triffids, film of Yordan and Sekely, based on John Wyndham.

1963-1966 The Outer Limits, television series of Leslie Stevens. 49 episodes of 50 minutes.

1964 The Time Travellers, film of Ib Melchior.

1965 Terrore nello Spazio, film of Bava and Ib Melchior.

1964-1965 Stingray, television series of Gerry and Sylvia Anderson. 39 episodes of 25 minutes, marionettes.

1965-1966 Thunderbirds, television series of Gerry and Sylvia Anderson. 32 episodes of 50 minutes, marionettes.

1965-1966: 'Thunderbirds', television series filmed in a technique called 'supermarionation' that gave impressive realism to animated muppets, almost twenty years before computer imaging began to be used in Cinematography.

1964-1968 Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, television series of Irwin Allen. 110 episodes of 50 minutes.

1964-1968: 'Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea', television series starring Richard Basehart as Admiral Harriman Nelson, David Hedison as Captain Lee Crane, and Bob Dowdell as Lieutenant Commander Chip Morton.

1966 Fantastic Voyage, film of Kleiner and Fleischer, based on Isaac Asimov.

1964-1968: 'Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea'. Although the story was rather simplistic in some episodes, aimed at a non-critical television public, the series was engaging and the actors interpreted their rôles perfectly.

1966-1967 The Time Tunnel, television series of Irwin Allen. 30 episodes of 50 minutes.

1966-1969 Star Trek, television series of Gene Roddenberry. 79 episodes of 50 minutes.

1967-1968 The Invaders, television series of Alan Armer. 43 episodes of 50 minutes.

1968 Captain Scarlet, television series of Gerry and Sylvia Anderson. 32 episodes of 25 minutes, marionettes.

1968 Two Thousand and One A Space Odyssey, film of Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke.

1968 Planet of the Apes, film of Boulle and Schaffner.

1968 Night of the Living Dead, film of Russo and Romero.

1969 Manden der Taenkte Ting, film of Stangerup und Ravn, based on Holst. Last important monochromatic film in Scientific Fiction.

1969 Doppelganger, film of Parrish and Gerry and Sylvia Anderson. Marionettes.

1971 The Andromeda Strain, film of Michael Crichton and Wise.

1971 Silent Running, film of Douglas Trumbull.

1972 Panico en el Transiberiano, film of Halevy and Martin.

1975 The Land that Time Forgot, film of Moorcock and Connor, based on Edgar Rice Borroughs.

1976 At the Earth's Core, film of Subotsky and Connor, based on Edgar Rice Borroughs.

1976 Squirm, film of Jeff Lieberman.

1977 Star Wars: a New Hope, film of George Lucas.

1979 Alien, film of O'Bannon and Scott.

1980 Star Wars: the Empire Strikes Back, film of George Lucas and Kershner.

1980 The Final Countdown, film of Ambrose and Taylor.

1983 Star Wars: the Return of the Jedi, film of George Lucas and Marquand.

1986 Aliens, film of James Cameron.


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